Tips for writing lab reports and scientific papers
Results of laboratory work are not useful unless they can be presented in a clear, concise manner to others for comment and evaluation
Lab reports, scientific papers, and white papers have specific details that need to be included. Lab reports and scientific papers usually present data, procedures and outcomes in an effort to persuade others to accept or not to accept a hypothesis. Often these papers are classed as scientific knowledge and provide a record of the theory and its accompanying evidence.Sections:
Lab reports and scientific papers usually have a title, an abstract, an introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion and literature cited. Make sure that these papers are logical and make sense to the reader. Do not use I, you or we. It helps to use the past tense with these papers. Scientific writing uses the metric system of measurement.
Write numbers as numerals, not words, if greater than ten or associated with measurement. Make sure somebody else reads your report before you submit to spot errors or inconsistencies.
White papers generally introduce innovative products or technology. These papers influence and often are used for strategy or documentation. When writing a white paper, know your audience. It helps to stay in the active voice and use non-technical vocabulary. Make sure that you have an easy to follow and interesting abstract.
Write out your problem then describe your product. Show your reader how your product solves the problem with evidence. Have a conclusion that refers back to your original abstract and summarizes your findings, especially your solutions. Make sure that somebody else reads the paper before publication.
Once you have read through this guide, go and check a couple of actual journal papers to see some real examples. You can use real papers as an additional guide for writing your own papers.
Section 01. Title: General Tips for Clear Writing:
The title should be descriptive but concise.
Section 02. Introduction:
This section provides background, specifically the conceptual motivation for your study, as well as a very brief statement (2 to 3 sentences) of the focus of your study.
The introduction should start with the general framework and end with your specific questions/hypotheses and study system. NEVER start the introduction with a focus on the specific study organism (keep the focus on the general concept of interest) and NEVER use phases like "little is known about..." because it is not a good reason to motivate a scientific study.
Section 03. Methods:
This section should contain all of the essential information necessary for someone to replicate your study. Do not, however, include minor details that have no bearing on the results (e.g. what color pen you used, what type of paper you recorded data on). Methods are written in the past tense and the active voice (e.g. We took measurements on.).
Include information on techniques, sampling method, any unusual data analyses that require justification, when and where the study was conducted, and perhaps a bit of information on the study animal if it is useful.
For well-established techniques you can refer the reader to an article that describes it. Do not include data or results in the Methods section.
Section 04. Results:
In this section, describe your findings (the patterns, statistics, with reference to tables or figures) but do not interpret what the results mean (that goes in the Discussion). Think carefully about how your data can be most efficiently and clearly conveyed to the reader (graphs, tables, written text).
Use Figures and Tables to summarize data, not to present your raw data. Only present data that you plan to interpret in the discussion. Present your results in a narrative form, but refer to graphs and figures where possible. (example: Alpha males were more likely to be involved in chases than beta males (Fig. 1).)
Do not describe every single finding in narrative form instead describe key comparisons in the data and unusual or surprising results. Make sure to present your results in a clear logical order.
When describing statistical results, present (1) the basic information being compared (e.g. means and standard deviations when comparing across groups, percentages when doing a Chi-square type comparison, or a slope if doing a regression (2) some statistical parameter (t value, chi square, etc) and a P value (probability).
Example: Alpha males were significantly larger than beta males (800 ± 25 kilos (N = 25) for alpha males, 550 ± 31 kilos (n = 41) for beta males; t = 4.21, P < 0.001).
Section 05. Figures (graphs):
Make sure you label both the Y and X axis. Also, every figure must have a figure caption, at the bottom, that explains very briefly what the figure is about. Check out figures in published papers to see some examples.
Section 06. Tables.
Each table starts with a table legend that briefly says what the table is about. Try to keep the table as simple as possible humungous tables are confusing and hard to read.
Section 07. Discussion:
In this section present your interpretation of your results and put them in the context of (1) your original hypotheses, (2) current/background theory, (3) other similar studies or (4) future directions and new questions that need to be answered.
Make sure you bring enough detail to your arguments so that they are clear and logical. Also ensure that you structure your discussion so that your results build upon each other and the overall flow is logical.
Pay special attention to how results of different observations integrate with respect to one body of theory.
If possible discuss alternative hypotheses and either why they are inconsistent with your data or what future study needs to be done to test an alternative hypothesis. In some cases, by answering one question, your study then leads to a new set of questions (i.e. what to do next) and this is fine material for a discussion.
Section 08. Literature Cited:
In the main text, cite papers by author and year, typically in brackets, and separate references by a coma (Wilson 1978, Gould 1980). Papers with more than three authors get cited as the first author et al. in the text (e.g. Orians et al. 1969) but all authors get listed in the Literature cited section.
In the literature cited section, papers are listed alphabetically by first author's last names. Include authors, year, title, journal volume and pages. Examples (note how a book chapter is cited in the Petrie reference):
Perone, M., and T.M. Zaret. 1979. Parental care patterns of fishes. Am. Nat. 113: 351-361.
Petrie, M. 1986. Reproductive strategies of male and female moorhens (Gallinula chloropus). Pp. 43 - 63. in D.I. Rubenstein and R.W. Wrangham, eds. Ecological aspects of social evolution. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.
Tip 01. Clear Writing
Clear and concise writing is essential in order to communicate your ideas and findings to the wider community (both scientific and non-scientific).
Don't try to make your writing sound scientific by using jargon or important sounding phases that don't really say anything the clearest writing is the simplest.
At the same time, do not use too informal a style (like, you know, it's not a letter to your buddies, Dude!) as this is unprofessional. Clear, simple and straightforward it's how you use the language that matters, not the fancy words you use.
Tip 02. Organization:
Make sure there is a logical flow throughout, both between and within paragraphs (as in conversation, a sudden change of topic in mid paragraph is very distracting).
Use TOPIC SENTENCES!! A topic sentence is the first sentence of a paragraph that provides a guide or roadmap for the entire paragraph. With a good topic sentence, the reader knows what the paragraph is about in advance and is primed to read what you have written.
Tip 03. Spelling and Grammar:
Spell check and proofread your grammar there is no excuse for these types of errors.